Agreements International Labour Standards
2 The celebration of the ILO`s 75th anniversary in 1994 triggered a series of reforms aimed at revitalising international labour standards. A pioneering instrument, the 1998 ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Workplace Rights (the „1998 Declaration“), contributed to the creation of a global social minimum by promoting respect for the fundamental rights and principles expressed in the EIGHT ILO core conventions and strengthening the level of ratification. The important role of international labour standards in achieving equitable globalization has been strongly supported by ILO voters, including the Declaration on Social Justice for Fair Globalization, 2008 (the Declaration on Social Justice) and the Global Jobs Pact, 2009. 32 In addition, the Expert Committee conducted a comprehensive policy review in its 2010 General Employment Instruments Report. persecuted governments against the underground economy. In this study, the Committee noted with interest that most countries reported adopting a policy focused on the economy, women, young people, older workers, people with disabilities and migrants. In Asia, for example, the most explicit informal economy programmes are found in current or former centrally planned economies. In Mongolia, there is a national informal economy programme whose key element is its integration into the formal economy through a registration system based on the issuance of identity cards. China also prioritizes the integration of the informal economy into the formal priority, while Vietnam emphasizes the development of Community-based insurance programmes as a means of improving the well-being of workers in the informal economy.
In the case of Latin America, the Committee found that most countries placed a strong emphasis on the informal economy and put forward policies and programs developed for the shady economy. Argentina has adopted a well-articulated policy towards the informal economy and the government considers informal employment to be one of the main challenges facing the labour market. She saw the expansion of the underground economy as an erosion of the fundamental rights of workers and their families. Its primary objective is therefore to end informal employment, but policymakers recognize that it is important to take into account the high degree of heterogeneity that characterizes the informal economy in the design of specific interventions. For its part, the Bolivian government has considered the integration of workers into the underground economy as one of its priorities, as proposed in a strategy document drawn up in 2009. The Ministry of Labour has proposed specific initiatives for the transition to the formal economy. Brazil has implemented a wide range of job creation and income creation programmes aimed at the underground economy, mainly through PROGER. In most other countries, there are also programmes such as microcredit, training and development of small and micro enterprises that covered the underground economy. In the case of Africa, the Committee found that most countries have policies focused on the shadow economy, youth and workers. With regard to the underground economy, Rwanda has suggested that it will prioritize the sector, as „in the years to come, job creation will depend less on government than in the past, which is why the need to redirect development policies and policies to the private sector (including the informal economy) will be a means of promoting employment.“ Cameroon said it was carrying out a specific project and was encouraging the creation of producer groups and increased credit to rural producers.